How to manage diabetes


What Diet should I take for Diabetes?

Diabetes does not require special foods. A healthy, balanced diet can come from everyday foods. If you have diabetes, you should

  • Choose foods that are low in fat and salt
  • Choose foods that are high in fiber (such as beans, vegetables, and fruit)
  • Eat foods from all food groups.
  • Lose weight if you need to by cutting down on how much you eat

How can exercise help in management of Diabetes?

Exercise is important for people with diabetes because it

  • Helps insulin work better to lower blood sugar
  • Helps keep weight down
  • Is good for the heart, blood vessels, and lungs
  • Gives you more energy

How do I get started with an exercise routine?

Before you begin an exercise routine, your health care team will check your heart, eyes, kidneys, feet, and nervous system to make sure you are healthy enough for physical activity.

Choose a type of exercise that you enjoy so that you are more likely to stick with it. Ask your doctor whether your choice of exercise is a good one for you.

As you begin to exercise, start slowly so that your body can get used to it.

Start with a 5 to 10 minute walk outdoors or on a treadmill several days a week, and then gradually add a few more minutes of walking each week. Experts recommend building up to at least 2 1/2 hours a week of aerobic exercise, such as brisk walking, swimming, cycling, or dancing.

What are the tips for being active throughout the day?


  1. Walk instead of drive or public transport whenever possible
  2. Take the stairs instead of the elevator
  3. Work in the garden, rake leaves, or do some housecleaning every day

What are my medication options?

Treatment of Diabetes depend on the type of your Diabetes Mellitus

  • For Type 2 DM: Most people can be managed with oral tablets for long time.
  • For Type 1 DM: Insulin is must right from diagnosis
  • For DM in Pregnancy, Insulin is recommended

How should I choose my Glucometer?

When choosing a meter, here are some features to consider:

  1. Meter size
  2. Amount of blood needed for the sample
  3. How long it takes to display the reading
  4. Ease in reading the display
  5. Ability to save the results in the meter’s memory
  6. Cost of the meter and strips

What is the correct method of testing Blood glucose with glucometer?

  • Wash hands with soap and warm water.
  • Dry hands.
  • Prepare the lancing device by inserting a fresh lancet.
  • Use the lancing device to obtain a small drop of blood from side of fingertip or alternate site (like the skin of the forearm).
    • Alternate sites are often less painful than the fingertip.
    • Results are not as accurate as fingertip samples when the blood glucose is rising or falling rapidly
  • If difficulty getting a good drop of blood from the fingertip, try rinsing your fingers with warm water, shaking the hand below the waist, or squeezing (“milking”) the fingertip.
  • Apply the blood drop to the test strip in the blood glucose meter.
  • Dispose of the used lancet in a puncture-resistant sharps container (not in household trash).

What is hypoglycaemia?

Hypoglycaemia is the term for low blood glucose (sugar).

How is hypoglycaemia treated?

  • Follow rule of 15
  • For mild to moderate hypoglycaemia,
    • You need to consume 15 grams of carbohydrates.
    • Wait 15 minutes and retest your blood glucose level.
    • If it is still low, consume another 15 grams of carbohydrates.
  • In severe cases: Injection glucagon to be given if available or to be taken to hospital as soon as possible.

Is There Any Good News?

Yes, we can reduce the chances of developing type 2 diabetes in high-risk people. (Weight loss, exercise, medications)

Yes, we can reduce the chances of developing diabetes complications through:

  • Blood glucose control (diet, monitoring, medication)
  • Blood pressure control
  • Cholesterol control
  • Regular visits to healthcare providers
  • Early detection and treatment of complications

Why is prevention of complication so stressed upon in management of Diabetes?

Most of the diabetes costs are due to end-stage complications. Investment of resources into early diagnosis, patient education, prevention and treatments pays off in form of longer lives, increased productivity and reduced costs over the long term.


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