Cardiothoracic surgery is a surgical procedure of the heart, lungs, esophagus, and other organs in the chest and a doctor who performs cardiothoracic surgery is known as cardiothoracic surgeon. Cardiothoracic surgery is carried out to treat the diseases that develop inside the chest. Coronary artery disease is one of the most common diseases treated by cardiothoracic surgeons. Cardiovascular surgeons, congenital heart surgeons, cardiac surgeons and general thoracic surgeons come in the category of cardiothoracic surgeons. Cardiothoracic surgery is a breakthrough in treating the diseases related to the chest.
Primary procedures of a cardiothoracic surgery
- Congenital cardiac surgery
- Adult cardiac surgery
- Heart transplant surgery
- General thoracic surgery
- Lung transplant surgery
Causes of cardiothoracic diseases
The most common causes which may lead to cardiothoracic diseases include:
- High blood pressure
- High level of bad cholesterol
- Coronary artery disease
- Uncontrolled diabetes
- Valvular heart disease
Treatments covered in cardiothoracic surgery
Esophageal and Lung resection- It is a minimal invasive cardiothoracic surgery performed to remove the damaged tissue from the lungs or the esophagus. This resection surgery is often less painful and can speed recovery time.
Mediastinal tumours- The abnormal growth of tissues in the chest cavity between the lungs leads to the formation of mediastinal tumours. An incision is made in the chest to remove the tumour from the lungs this surgical procedure is known as thoractomy.
Cardiac support devices- The cardiac support devices are installed either before or after surgery to maintain the flow of blood circulation in the patient’s body. These support devices are inserted in an artery to support the normal function of blood. The support devices are generally used in patients undergoing angioplasty or coronary stent procedure.
Aortic and Mitral valve repair and replacement- Cardiothoracic Surgery is performed to repair the leaked or blocked heart valves. This is a minimal invasive procedure and requires very few and small incisions in the chest.
Coronary Artery Bypass Grafting (CABG)- This grafting procedure provides the patient long-term relief from the symptoms of angina and other coronary artery diseases. The coronary heart disease is a disease in which a plaque builds up inside the arteries and affects the proper blood flow to the heart. This medical procedure aims at improving the blood flow to the heart.
Common conditions treated with cardiothoracic surgery
- Lung cancer
- Congestive heart failure
- Myocardial infarction
- Artial fibrillation
- Thoracic aortic aneurysm
- Aorta transaction
- Valvular insufficiency
Cardiothoracic surgery risks
The risks associated with cardiothoracic surgery are: