- It is more a symptom than a disease that something is damaging the kidney, over time it can lead to kidney failure
- It is usually caused by the damage in the clusters of small blood vessels in the kidney that filters waste and excess water from the blood.
Causes of nephrotic syndrome:
- It is caused due to the damage of tiny blood vessels in the kidneys, known as glomeruli which keep balance between protein in blood and urine
- A type of kidney disease called minimal change disease, it is the main cause of nephritic syndrome in childrens
- Diabetes is the most common cause of nephrotic syndrome in adults
Other causes may be:
- Diseases which attack glomeruli such as membranous glomerulopathy and focal segmental glomerulosclerosis.
- Disease such as lupus and certain cancers
- Infection such as HIV, hepatitis B etc
- Certain nonsteroidal anti-inflammatory drugs.
Symptoms of nephrotic syndrome:
Certain symptoms may include:
- Severe swelling, particularly around the eyes and in ankles and feet
- Foamy urine, which may be caused by excess protein in the urine
- Weight gain due to excess fluid retention
- Loss of appetite
Diagnosis of nephrotic syndrome:
Certain diagnosis technique may include:
- Urine test to measure the amount of protein in the urine
- Blood tests to measure the amount of protein, cholesterol and sugar in the blood
- Ultrasound imaging to look at the kidneys.
- Kidney biopsy may be done by removing a small tissue of kidney to look for certain complications in kidney
Treatments of nephrotic syndrome:
No certain treatment may be needed, if the risk of the person for any other complication is less, and the patient is curing on its own. But in some more complex cases certain medications can e given:
- Corticosteroids such as prednisone
- Other immune suppressing medicines such as cyclosporine and cyclophposphamide
Other treatments may be given for some complications resulting from nephrotic syndrome, such as blood clots, high blood pressure, high cholesterol etc.
- Blood pressure medicines to lower blood pressure
- Diuretics to reduce fluid build up in the body and reduce blood pressure
- Statins to reduce high cholesterol
- Blood thinners, such as warfarin or heparin to dilute blood clots.